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How to Format an Essay: Expert Tips to Enhance Your College Writing

Are you having trouble with essay formatting and professional editing and proofreading. Do you need to learn various ways to make your essay better through proper formatting? You have come to arguably the best format website. We have powerful solutions to all your concerns.

Students often show little or no attention formatting their papers right essay checker and corrector. Few college students realize how important essay formatting can be to their papers. Having been in the writing service for a considerable period, we can confidently assert that proper formatting contributes to more than 10% of the overall grade of an essay. The instructor will not just focus on the content but also on formatting elements such as line spacing, indentations, in-text citations, font size, and margins among others

The major formatting styles used in colleges and universities include:

APA Formatting: a Guide to Formatting Your Essay Using APA Style

APA is the largest scientific professional formatting style, which most colleges and universities endorse. Using APA, as your favorite format style can be a good decision if you understand the basic elements required in the same. We have the best APA format online website, which can help you recognize the significant sectors of the APA format

APA Writing Format Example: an APA Format Template for College Papers

APA has unique but simple format templates that guide students into proper paper formatting. First, it is essential to know that a typical APA format paper template entails four major sections including the title page, an abstract, the main body, and the reference page. College students can get a reliable APA style template online grammar editor to help them understand how to make their academic essays appealing to instructors. Besides, we have the best APA format essay example on our website, through which you can get professional elaborations on the major sections required for APA formatting. We understand how important academic writing is to students; as a result, we have gathered relevant resources, including academic essay structure example, to enhance your writing skills.

How to Format a Title Page APA Style – a Standard APA Title Page

The title page is a mandatory section of the APA paper format. While many students may deem it as a difficult component, understanding how to format the title page is the simplest exercise

one can do in essay writing. The APA format cover page entails the running head and the essay topic. These two are written at the top of the page and flushed to the left. It also entails the title, student’s full name, and the institutional affiliation, which are written in the middle of the page and as a centered block.

Tips on How to Format Reference Page in APA Style Correctly

The American psychological association format for references is the easiest students can adopt. References make any academic paper look authentic and professional. The APA style of writing references entails a simple procedure of arranging the references on a new page in alphabetical order. The reference begins with the authors’ surname, followed by the year of publication, the title of the book/journal, and the publishing company.

MLA Citation Format Guide for College Academic Writing

Are you having a challenge formatting your paper in the MLA style? Do you need MLA format help from dissertation proofreading and editing? Our online writing agency has the best and experienced writers who have adequate mastery of all the formatting styles used in academic writing. You can get reliable assistance from us concerning your MLA citations.

Students commonly use the MLA formatting and style of writing due to various reasons. While other formatting styles could be challenging, the MLA citation style can make your formatting work easier because it is straightforward. From our MLA format website, you can get reliable examples and templates to guide your writing. Anytime you need professional assistance, our experts will always be ready to help you.

Reliable MLA Style Template – an MLA Format Example to Guide You

If you need an MLA citation example essay, you can find the best from our website done by a professional. Our proficient writers know how to format a paper in any format style. Relying on them can be a way of taking your writing skills to a new level and increasing your essay performances. You could be wondering how to get an MLA style example essay- just click on the MLA style example button on our website, and you will get a reliable one to direct you.

Besides, the MLA template below will be helpful in highlighting the major sections needed for
excellent ml essays.

How to Format the MLA Cover Page

From the template above, you can deduce that the MLA format style does not require an exclusive cover page like the APA style. However, the title section is incorporated with the first page of the essay with the title, name, course name, and date marked on the top-left side of the paper. The MLA title format entails a capitalized and doubled spaced text centered on the first page below the date.

Expert Tips – How to Cite References in MLA

The MLA reference list is the last section of the essay, and it appears on its new page at the end of the text. The in-text citations assume the author-name format for the MLA format. Through the in-text citations, the writer is able to show the authenticity of their work. It is important to note that the MLA reference format entails major elements, which should be arranged in a particular order. These elements include the author’s name, the title of the source, the version, number, publisher, publication date, and the location.

The Harvard Format and Referencing Style in Academic Writing

University students commonly use the Harvard citation format for their academic essays. The Harvard citation guides entail use of references in both text and inclusion in the reference list at the end of the essay. You can easily cite Harvard style papers through professional assistance like our own. It is imperative that you master all the elements needed for proper referencing. If you need to make your essay appealing with the Harvard style, then you need to understand how to do it right from the cover page to the reference page.

Need to know how to cite Harvard style essays? Then you are on the right platform. Get insightful advice from our professionals on how to make your Harvard citations appealing and professional.

Harvard Style Template – a Trustworthy Harvard Style Example

You may need a Harvard thesis template to help you comprehend this best. It is freely provided on our website to help students get it right when it comes to formatting their dissertations and assignments in Harvard style. Our realization of the significance of the essay formatting compels us to hire the best professionals to help college students write top-notch quality papers. The Harvard format example from the template on our website is a reliable source to help college students in their writing exercises.

The Standard Harvard Style Title Page for Harvard Essays

The Harvard style has a unique cover page, which is different from the rest. The title and author’s name are on the same page but in different sections as illustrated in the Harvard title page template below.

A Reliable Referenser Harvard Format

Referencing for the Harvard style takes the form of the name of author(s), year of publication, paper title, city of publication, the publisher, and the pages used in the text. The in-text citations include the author name, the year of publication, and the page where the text referenced is extracted. If you need to know how to format the reference page, then use the Harvard referens guide done by our professionals copy editing services.

A Professional Guide on the Chicago Style Format

You could have had difficulties in formatting your paper in the Chicago style. Worry nor more; we have a reliable Chicago format website to help you understand the significant elements of the Chicago style. A typical Chicago format paper includes footnotes/endnotes, which are represented with a superscript in the in-text citations. It also entails an organized bibliography page, which entail all the sources used in the essay.

Chicago Format Template – the Best Chicago Style Example from Us

The Chicago format style is not as easy as people may insinuate. You are lucky to have come to our platform. With our expert help, the Chicago formatting exercise can turn to be interesting. Just recognize that the superscripts and the endnotes are incorporated in the writing software like Microsoft Word. From the simple Chicago style template on our website, you will realize how simple it is to place the footnotes with the help of the automatic insert footnote button. You can also get a Chicago style paper example done by our professionals to make the lesson easier.

The Chicago Format Cover Page Components

Apart from the endnotes that distinguish the Chicago style of writing, the cover page can also be identified easily as that of Chicago. The things that should be included on the Chicago format title page include a comprehensive title of the paper, the name of institution, student, course and the date of essay delivery. The Chicago style first page is organized to include a one-inch space for the margins.

An Example of a Chicago Reference Page

The Chicago Style reference page is placed at the end of the paper with the title as bibliography. The bibliography is the other unique element that distinguishes the Chicago format style. The reference page takes the form below:

The Turabian Format Style: What Is Turabian Format?

The Turabian format is closely related to the Chicago style of formatting. It was developed many years ago to help the students of the Chicago University in writing equality academic dissertations. Many institutions have adopted the Turabian citation formula, which has the endnotes and bibliography sections as a distinguishing element. Learn how to use the Turabian essay format from our professionals to be equipped with the best essay formatting skills.

Turabian Style Format Example –Turabian Style Paper Template Components

If you need the best Turabian citation example dissertation, get one done by our seasoned writers. The Turabian format template presupposes the following:

  • One-inch margins on all sides
  • New Times Roman with12pt is preferred
  • The page numbers begin from the first page and not the cover page
  • The entire paper is double-spaced

Cover Page Formatting – The Turabian Cover Page

Are you seeking to understand how to format title and cover page using the Turabian format? We are excellent at paper formatting exercises. You can trust our formatting services. The Turabian format title page entails the title, name of the student, course name and the date of submission. The Turabian title page does not include a page number. The pagination starts from the first page of the introduction.

The Turabian Reference Page Format

The reference page for the Turabian format takes a similar style as that of the Chicago style. It is titled as the bibliography with references that written in alphabetic order. Besides, the Turabian referencing style dictates that the author centers all the sources on the last page o the document.

You can make your Chicago essays appealing and professional if you master all the requirements and elements of the format of interest. Mark the distinguishing things such as endnotes for the Chicago and running for APA to make your formatting exercise more interesting.

Reliable Document Formatting Service for College Students

If you need the best dissertation formatting service to order your paper, then we are the smartest choice you could make. With the expert writers we hire for you, we are confident that our formatting service will improve your essay grades. You can also order formatting services for your document, and we will assign the suitable formatting expert to work on it.

We are a reliable writing services company that you can trust with your formatting orders. Visit our website and fill out the order forms on our website. Call us now!

How to Write References


 Why Cite References?

Citing bibliographical references means:
CITING acknowledging within your text the document from which you have obtained information.
BIBLIOGRAPHY is the list of publications you consulted.
REFERENCE is the detailed description of the document from which you have obtained the information.

Honest and professional citation of references provides part of the framework for sound written research:

  • because you must acknowledge the sources you have used to establish your arguments and criticisms;

  • the references enable other people to identify and trace the sources you have used for your ideas;

  • and it helps avoid charges of plagiarism because it makes clear when you are using someone else's ideas and words.

 There are two principal components to citing references

  • the way you acknowledge, cite the source in your text
  • the way you list your sources at the end of your work to enable identification, i.e. the bibliography (or reference list )

There are a variety of systems for bibliographies. Once you have selected a system it is important that you stick to it consistently.

Most subjects and Faculties within the University have a preferred system. Please see the below for details. If your subject or Faculty does not appear in the list on this page, please contact your tutor for advice.

Standard Styles

QEC, the University of Stirling's Quality Enhancement Committee approved the adoption of standard styles for subjects. The style for each subject is listed below.


You can use RefWorks, the University of Stirling supported referencing software, to help you create bibliographies and with Write-N-Cite a RefWorks tool, insert citations into your essay as you write!

See our RefWorks and Write-N-Cite guide. Or visit RefWorks' own guide.


Below are the different styles subjects have chosen with links to further information and example bibliographies and in-text citation guidelines.


The QEC approved Recommendation for Standard styles was as follows:

Recommendations (approved)

10. QEC is invited to:

Approve the adoption of standard styles for all subjects within all Faculties. We recognise that in some Faculties there are a number of disparate subjects (e.g., Faculty of Arts and Humanities includes law which has very different referencing needs from the rest of the Faculty) so we do not suggest limiting the number of standard styles within a Faculty. Our primary aim is to make things less complex for the students. RefWorks offers many different styles to choose from and we are not proposing to restrict subjects in their choice, only that a Faculty or subject, choose from the list offered by RefWorks. The list can be found here: (this includes such styles as APA 6th edition; Chicago 16th edition; Harvard British Standard 2010; MLA and Vancouver).


Avoiding Plagiarism

Plagiarism (from the Latin plagiarius meaning a kidnapper, literary thief) is a very serious offence and at University of Stirling is considered to be Academic Misconduct. In summary: you must not represent the ideas of other people as your own - this applies to published works and the work of other students.

The University of Stirling's Guide to to plagiarism pages are designed to help you to understand more fully what plagiarism is and how you can develop practices to avoid it.

You may also find useful the tutorial "Avoiding Plagiarism" (designed by University of Leicester) about how to understand, and avoid plagiarism.

The following points are based on Stirling University's Policy on Plagiarism:

  • It is not sufficient merely to list a source in an appended bibliography, or in the body of an assignment to express a general indebtedness. To avoid a charge of plagiarism, all debts must be specifically, precisely and accurately referenced in accordance with good academic practice. 

  • When a source is directly quoted word-for-word, the passage quoted should be placed within quotation marks or indented and the source accurately referenced, in parenthesis, in a footnote, or in an endnote, according to a recognised system. There must be no ambiguity about where the quotation ends or begins. 

  • The source of any data cited (e.g. figures, tables, charts) should be made explicit. 

  • When ideas, or an argument, are reproduced from a source in a general or paraphrased way, the source must be acknowledged. 

Remember that these rules apply to all the different sources of information you have used, for example: a lecture or tutorial, books, journal articles, web sites, newspapers, a television programme, a friend's essay.

If you think about where you found your information and reference your work properly, then accidental plagiarism can be avoided.

Journal Title Abbreviations

In the examples in this guide the journal titles used have been given in full, however in many sources and databases the journal title is given in an abbreviated form, and it can be difficult to know what it means.

Fortunately journal title abbreviations are standardised. There are a number of useful sources you can use to check the standard abbreviation:

Legal Citations

Please see our OSCOLA Introduction and OSCOLA Help pages.‌


RefWorks has information about working with footnotes and endnotes. It is essential to check the formatting of your bibliography, to ensure that it meets the requirements of the style used by your Faculty. If you are a History students and require a 'short reference', titles can be manually shortened in RefWorks.

Further Information

The following sources provide additional information on writing references and may be helpful if you are uncertain about how to treat a particular publication type or style.  However, please be aware that there is no definitive standard for all referencing guidance and these sources may vary with RefWorks bibliography and citation styles.

There are a variety of accepted systems for bibliographies and you can check these by consulting books about writing essays and theses in the Education section of the Library. At Stirling, these books are located at K 8.135, at the Highland and Western Isles campuses these books are located at LB 2369. For example:

ACHTERT, W.S. and GIBALDI, J., 1985. The MLA style manual. New York: Modern Language Association of America.

BECKER, H.S., 2007. Writing for social scientists: how to start and finish your thesis, book or article. 2nd edn. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

BRITISH STANDARDS INSTITUTION, 2010. Information and documentation: guidelines for bibliographic references and citations to information resources: BS ISO 690-2010. London: ISO.

COUNCIL OF BIOLOGY EDITORS. COMMITTEE ON FORM AND STYLE, 1994. Scientific style and format: the CBE manual for authors, editors, and publishers.6th edn. Cambridge: CUP.

MODERN HUMANITIES RESEARCH ASSOCIATION, 2008. MHRA style guide: a handbook for authors, editors, and writers of theses. 2nd edn. London: Modern Humanities Research Association.

NEVILLE, C., 2007. The complete guide to referencing and avoiding plagiarism. Maidenhead: Open University Press.

PEARS, R. and SHIELDS, G.J., 2010. Cite them right: the essential referencing guide. 8th edn. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

TURABIAN, K.L., 2007. A manual for writers of research papers, theses, and dissertations: Chicago style for students and researchers. 7th edn. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.


Referencing electronic sources

The publications above will include details on referencing types of publications and sources not covered in this guide e.g. Newspaper articles, videos, etc. Many of the web sites below cover electronic sources.

Useful Websites

There are also a number of useful websites for referencing information; many of them cover both printed and electronic formats. For example the particularly helpful:

Guide to referencing: Harvard - from the University of the West of England


APA (American Psychological Association) Formatting and Style Guide - from the Online Writing Lab at Purdue University, Indiana

Create an APA Reference List - from the University of Wisconsin

Referencing@Portsmouth is an online citation tool which gives information about the APA (5th & 6th eds), OSCOLA and Vancouver styles

MLA (Modern Language Association) Formatting and Style Guide - from the Online Writing Lab at Purdue University, Indiana

Audiovisual Citation: British Universities Film & Video Council Guidelines for Referencing moving images and sound this guide includes information about referencing from film, television, radio, audio such as podcasts, media clips such as YouTube and new media sources such as webcasts and webinars

The Chicago Manual of Style Quick Guide. This is an online guide to the referencing style used by students studying Religious Studies in the Division of Literature and Languages


Abbreviations/ terms used

Common abbreviations and terms used in references:


col.column (plural, cols.)
comp.compiler (plural, comps.)
ed.edition; edited by; editor (plural, eds.)
et alii : Latin for 'and others'
ibid.ibidem : Latin for 'in the same place'. This word can only be used in 
the next consecutive reference in a list after an earlier reference to the same work.
For example :
1. Leggett, J. The carbon war: global warming and the end of the oil era
2nd edition. London, Penguin, 2000.
2. ibid. p. 65
3. Ledwith, S. and Manfredi, S. Balancing gender in higher education - a study of the experience of 
senior women in a 'new' UK university. European Journal of Women's Studies, 7 (1), 2000. pp. 7-33
4. ibid. date (of publication known) place (of publication known)
no.number (plural nos.) In America, the symbol # is often used
op. cit.opere citato : Latin for 'in the work cited' 
For example :
1. Brennan, A.A. Environmental decision making. In: Berry, R. J. ed. 
Environmental dilemmas: ethics and decisions. London, Chapman & Hall, 1993. pp. 1-19.
2. Leggett, J. The carbon war: global warming and the end of the oil era
2nd edition. London, Penguin, 2000. pp. 25-27
3. Brennan, A.A. op. cit. p. 45 (plural pp.)
supp.supplement (plural, supps.)
Trans.translator ; translated by
vol.volume (plural, vols.)