Skip to content

Jeanne Robinson Bibliography

Past History Month Honorees

The National Women’s History Project would like to thank Jennifer Kennedy, Jeanne Robinson, Christie Rubio, and Margaret Zierdt for their work in researching, writing, and editing the paragraphs on the former National Women’s History Week/Month Honorees.

A list of all the women who have been honored for National Women’s History Week and National Women’s History Month follows (in alphabetical order):

Wendy Abrams(b. 1965)
Founder and President of Cool Globes
Illinois USA
Wendy Abrams founded Cool Globes, a non-profit organization established to raise awareness of global warming, and to inspire individuals and community leaders to embrace solutions. She also demonstrates her commitment to a healthy environment a member of the National Council of Environmental Defense, the National Board of the Union of Concerned Scientists and the National Resources Defense Council C4 Action Fund.

Bella Abzug(1920–1998 )
Congresswoman, Women’s Rights Activist
Abzug was a founder and national legislative director of Women Strike for Peace from 1961 to 1970. She served 3 terms in Congress (1970–1976) where she worked to end the Vietnam War and the draft. She was presiding officer at the first government sponsored women’s conference at Houston in 1977. In 1990, she co-founded the International Women’s Environment and Development Organization to provide visibility and support for working women.

Abigail Adams (1744–1818)
Women Rights Advocate
As a self-educated woman, Adams held well-informed strong political beliefs. In over two thousand letters written to her husband John, to family and friends, and to government officials, she articulately expressed her ideas on the American Revolution, the new nation, the American family, foreign courts, and war. Well respected, her opinions were influential in government affairs before, during, and after her husband’s term as president.

Rebecca Adamson(1950–)
Native American Advocate
A member of the Cherokee nation, in 1980 Adamson founded the First Nations Development Institute. This group has established new standards of accountability regarding federal responsibility and reservation land reform and has an operating budget of about three million dollars. Adamson has aided indigenous peoples in Australia and Africa also and has received many awards for mobilizing and unifying people to solve common problems.

Jane Addams (1860–1935)
Social Worker
Addams founded Hull House in Chicago in 1889, America’s first settlement house providing English language classes, childcare, health education, and recreational programs for poor immigrant families. From 1919 until her death, Addams was president of the Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom. She won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1931, the first American woman so honored, for her unending dedication to the causes of peace and social justice.

Marian Anderson (1902–1993)
Anderson was denied permission to perform at Constitution Hall in Washington, D.C. by the Daughters of the American Revolution—because she was black. Undaunted, she sang at the Lincoln Memorial on Easter Sunday, 1939, to an audience of 75,000. With a voice that “comes once in a century,” Anderson was the first black singer to perform at the Metropolitan Opera in 1955. Her talent and quiet determination opened doors for other black classical performers.

Mary Anderson (1872–1964)
Labor Activist
Anderson’s keen negotiating skills and labor activism, especially on behalf of working women, won her an appointment in 1920 as the first director of the Women’s Bureau in the U.S. Department of Labor. During her 24 years there, she played a major role in winning federal minimum wage and maximum hour laws for women. After retiring in 1944, Anderson continued to advocate on behalf of working women.

Ethel Percy Andrus (1884–1967)
Elder Rights Activist
Andrus was the founder of the National Retired Teachers Association (NRTA) in 1947 and the American Association of Retired Persons (AARP) in 1958. As its first president, Andrus pioneered nursing home reform legislation, often testified before Congress on issues of concern to senior citizens, and challenged mandatory retirement laws. She showed Americans of all ages that older people can and do live productive, useful, and purposeful lives.

Maya Angelou(1928–)
Angelou is a novelist, poet, professional stage and screen writer, dancer, editor, lecturer, songwriter, and civil rights activist. Most notable among her publications are autobiographical novels starting with I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings, published in 1970, which helped establish the memoir as a popular genre. In 1993, Angelou recited an original poem at President Clinton’s inauguration, confirming her status as “a people’s poet.”

Lupe Anguiano (b. 1929–)
Protector of the Earth and Activist for the Poor
Defying any single category of cause or action, Lupe Anguiano, an educator, has always worked for the equality of all people. She is a passionate environment volunteer, helping to protect “Mother Earth” from global warming and other destructive environmental hazards. In 1949, she joined Our Lady of Victory Missionary Sisters.  As a nun, she worked for fifteen years to improve the social, educational, and economic conditions of poor people throughout the United States. Anguiano was also a United Farm Workers’ Volunteer, working directly under the direction of Cesar Chavez in Delano, California. She led the successfully grape boycott in the entire State of Michigan in 1965.

Susan B. Anthony (1820–1906)
Women’s Rights Activist, Suffragist
Susan B. Anthony began her life-long campaign for woman suffrage when she met Stanton in 1852. They organized the National Woman Suffrage Association in 1869. Anthony edited its newspaper, traveled extensively, organizing and lecturing. When committed people work for justice, she said, “Failure is Impossible.” The Nineteenth Amendment, passed in 1920, has been called the “Anthony Amendment” in tribute to the tireless work of this great crusader.

Virginia Apgar (1909–1974)
Physician, Anesthesiologist
Apgar graduated in 1933 from Columbia’s College of Physicians and Surgeons. In 1949, she became the first full professor of anesthesiology at Columbia. In 1952, she developed the internationally adopted Apgar Score System which measures a newborn infant’s heart rate, respiration, muscle tone, reflexes and color. She joined the National Foundation—March of Dimes in 1959, and in 1967, she became director of basic research for the Foundation.

Mary Arlene Appelhof(1936–2005)
Biologist, Worm Farmer, Educator, Publisher, and Environmentalist
Mary Appelhof advocated using the lowly earthworm to recycle food waste into usable fertilizer. In the early 1970s she turned her basement worm container into a career designing composting bins, marketing worms, and authoring Worms Eat My Garbage. As “Worm Woman,” she introduced thousands of schoolchildren and home gardeners to the fascinating, environmentally-significant activity of vermicomposting.

Roswitha Augusta
Entrepreneur, Filmmaker
Roswitha Augusta, is an entrepreneur, naturalist, and environmental filmmaker. In 1980, she established Augusta Properties, an apartment management company. Her profound love of nature prompted her to learn filmmaking and produce the award winning documentary, Preserving the Future, about the conflict between preserving our environment and urbanization. Additionally, she hosts a cable television program about local environmental issues.

Stephanie Avery (b. 1975)
Director of Special Projects, YWCA of the Lower Cape Fear and Leave No Trace Master Educator
North Carolina
Ms. Avery developed ECO CAMPS on YWCA property. She personally built nature trails through the wetlands using the best practices of “Leave No Trace,” spearheaded the identification of the flora and fauna, and created a tent classroom. She continues her work in conducting workshops and running ongoing ECO CAMPS and striving to help the community form habits to protect and preserve the environment.

Judith F. Baca (1946–)
Determined to give all people a voice in public art and urban culture, Baca organized over 1,000 young people in Los Angeles to create more than 250 murals citywide. Starting in 1974, her massive works have brought together young people from different ethnic neighborhoods to explore their cultural histories and make connections to their lives today. Since 1987, Baca has been creating an enormous portable mural called the “World Wall” to promote global peace.

Ella Baker (1903–1986)
Political Activist
Baker worked steadily for 50 years to gain civil and voting rights for blacks. As Field Secretary and later Director of Branches for the NAACP, from 1938–1946, she traveled extensively in the segregated South, often at great peril. Baker helped found the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) in 1958, the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) in 1960, and the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party in 1964.

Clara Barton (1821–1912)
Nurse, American Red Cross Founder
Barton began her humanitarian work in the Civil War when she collected and delivered supplies and nursed wounded Union soldiers. She was called the “Angel of the Battlefield.” In 1869, she learned about the work of the International Red Cross, founded in 1863 in Geneva. Barton helped convince the United States to sign the Geneva treaty in 1882, and in 1893, she became president of the American Red Cross. For 22 years, Barton led its disaster relief work.

Mollie Beattie(1947–1996)
Forester, Conservationist and Government Official
Mollie Beattie was the first woman to head the United States Fish and Wildlife Service, which enforces wildlife laws and administers the Endangered Species Act. Beattie oversaw the successful reintroduction of the gray wolf into northern Rocky Mountains. To recognize her extraordinary work in the field of conservation, Congress named a wilderness area in Alaska’s Arctic National Wildlife Refuge in her honor.

Catharine Beecher (1800–1852)
Author, Educator
Beecher was a dedicated advocate of education for women. Beecher founded the Hartford Female Seminary in 1827 and later opened schools in western towns to train women to be teachers and strong mothers. Her 1869 book, The American Woman’s Home, gave basic information on child rearing, housekeeping, and cooking. She endorsed exercise, non-restrictive clothes, fresh air, and good food to develop healthy women able to raise educated citizens.

Rebecca Bell(b.1953)
Environmental Education Specialist
Rebecca Bell has provided outstanding leadership in embedding environmental issues into the Maryland State curriculum for all public schools. Honored as the Maryland Middle School Science Teacher of the Year, Ms. Bell was selected in 2008 to participate in the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Teacher at Sea program to help scientists monitor changing ecosystem. Rebecca also serves on the Governor’s Climate Change Commission.

Mary McLeod Bethune (1875–1955)
Educator, Presidential Advisor
In 1904, Bethune opened a school for black girls in Daytona Beach that became Bethune-Cookman College in 1929. She was its president until 1942. In 1935, she founded the National Council of Negro Women and was its president until 1949. From 1936 to 1944, Bethune served as advisor to President Roosevelt on minority affairs. She was vice-president of NAACP from 1940 to 1955. In 1945, she attended the organizing conference of the United Nations.

Rachel Binah( b. 1942 )
Community Activist
Rachel Binah mobilized her Fort Bragg in California community to stop oil drilling off California’s North Coast.  Federal hearings were attended by 5000 people with 1400 signed up to testify!  As Chair Emeritus of California Democratic Party’s Environmental Caucus, and Democratic National Committeewoman, Rachel continues to advocate for Earth’s environment, alternative energy, and ocean protection to Democratic candidates, elected officials.

Elizabeth Blackwell(1821–1910)
Blackwell became the first woman doctor when she graduated from Geneva Medical School in 1849. Blackwell and two other women doctors opened the New York Infirmary for Women and Children in 1857. During the Civil War, she assisted in selecting and training nurses. She and her sister opened the Women’s Medical College in New York in 1868. Returning to her native England, she was a professor of gynecology at the London School of Medicine for Children.

Jenny Blaker(b. 1955)
Outreach Coordinator, Cotati Creek Critters
As Outreach Coordinator for the Cotati Creek Critters (CCC) in Cotati, California, Jenny Blaker has involved hundreds of volunteers in planting a mile of native trees and shrubs alongside the city’s Laguna de Santa Rosa waterway. CCC’s community education program has helped to raise awareness and nurture a sense of environmental stewardship. Although Ms. Blaker is a British national, she was awarded the Cotati Citizen of the Year Award, 2007.

Arlene Blum (b.1945)
Bio-Physical Chemist, Mountaineer, Environmental Activist
Arlene Blum is best known for leading the first American, all-women’s ascent of Annapurna. Blum’s research was instrumental in banning Tris and Fyrol, two cancer-causing chemicals used as flame retardants on children’s sleepwear, and the pesticide DBCP. Today, Blum is fighting the use of flame retardants in every-day products such as upholstered furniture. She is the author ofBreaking Trail: A Climbing Life.

Margrett (“Gretta”) Boley
Forest Supervisor, Kisatchie National Forest
Superintendent Boley was first in the region to implement Biomass Plant which produces energy from wood chips for district office, parking lot lighting and other energy needs. A leader and role model in reducing the carbon footprint, she began an office campaign for recycling paper, batteries, disposal of tree marking paint, oil, other items that are harming the environment.
Additional information can be obtained from the public information officer, Jim Caldwell, Kisatchie National Forest, (318) 473-7160, ext. 7168

Gertrude Bonnin (1876–1938)
Indian Rights Activist, Writer
Growing up on a reservation and attending missionary schools, Bonnin faced pressures from the white community to ignore her mother’s Sioux culture. In 1901, she compiled an anthology, Old Indian Legends and in 1913, she wrote an opera, The Sun Dance. From 1918 to 1919, she was editor of the American Indian Magazine. She created the National Council of American Indians in 1926 to fight for rights and equality for American Indians.

Margaret Bourke-White (1904–1971)
Bourke-White was the first female photojournalist, working for Fortune magazine and Life magazine. She published photos of the depression in a book, You have Seen Their Faces. During World War II, she documented military action in Africa and Europe. Bourke-White later photographed Gandhi’s non-violent protests in India. Her images of the Great Depression, WWII, and the liberation of the concentration camps reveal the startling human side of historical events.

Carol Moseley Braun
U.S. Senator
Braun was the first black woman Senator, serving from 1992 to 1998, after ten years in the Illinois House of Representatives. In 1998, she worked with the Dept. of Education developing programs to assist minority and women college students. From 1999 to 2001, Braun was ambassador to New Zealand and Samoa. Braun was a candidate for the Democratic nomination for president in 2003, but withdrew in January 2004.

Pearl Buck (1892–1973)
Author, Humanitarian
Buck wrote more than 100 books using a variety of themes and many locales including China, Russia, and America. In 1931, she won the Pulitzer Prize for her book The Good Earth . She won the Nobel Prize in 1938 for her writings, the first American women so honored. She founded Welcome House, an adoption agency for Asian-American children in 1949. The Pearl S. Buck Foundation was set up in 1964 to aid half-American children throughout Asia.

Sarah Buel (b.1953)
Domestic Violence Activist, Attorney
Escaping domestic violence in her own life, Sarah Buel became an impassioned advocate for the legal rights of battered women and abused children. Believing that if she became an attorney she could best defend and advocate for battered women and their children, she graduated from Harvard Law School and now runs a legal clinic for battered women. She is also co-founder and co-director of the National Training Center on Domestic and Sexual Violence.

Nannie Helen Burroughs (1879–1961)
Educator, School Founder
“We specialize in the wholly impossible,” describes the school Burroughs opened for black girls and women in 1909 with seven students. The National Training School for Women and Girls opened in Washington, D.C., combining classical and trade courses with required black history classes. By the 1960s, thousands from around the world had received an education of junior college quality. In 1964, the school became the Nannie Helen Burroughs Elementary School.

Barbara K. Byrd ( b. 1949 )
State Secretary of the Oregon AFL-CIO
Barbara Byrd coordinates the Oregon Apollo Alliance, a labor-business-environmental coalition that promotes clean energy and good jobs. In 2007, she attended the United Nations Climate Change Convention in Bali, Indonesia. Her participation in the first labor delegation to the Western Climate Initiative stakeholder meetings in 2008 which resulted in documenting labor’s stake in the climate change.

Helen Caldicott (b.1938)
Physician, Author, Speaker
Helen Caldicott, physician, pacifist, and anti-nuclear activist, has worked for over 35 years to educate the international community on the medical and environmental hazards of the nuclear age. As “the single most articulate and passionate advocate of citizen action to remedy the nuclear and environmental crises,” Dr. Caldicott was named by The Smithsonian Institute as one of the most influential women of the 20th Century.

Edna Campbell (b.1968)
Professional Athlete, Spokesperson for Breast Cancer Awareness
A professional basketball player with the WNBA Sacramento Monarchs and a breast cancer survivor, Edna Campbell travels across the country as a spokesperson for breast cancer awareness, encouraging women to do regular breast exams and inspiring those with cancer to have hope and courage in challenging the disease. She uses these opportunities to recognize other survivors and to raise money for breast cancer research.

Tammy Cromer-Campbell (b.1960)
Knowing that environmental justice issues are not limited to Winona, Texas, Tammy Cromer-Campbell documents how communities struggle with environmental injustice. She starts with Winona, Texas, then Seattle, Washington, Houston and De Berry, Texas. It’s her hope that revealing these injustices real change will occur. To tell this story, she created With Fruit of the Orchard | Environmental Justice in East Texas as a film and as a book.

Rachel Carson (1907–1964)
Biologist, Pioneer Environmentalist
Carson’s research and writings awakened worldwide concern for our environment. In 1962, Silent Spring, detailed the dangers of DDT and other pesticides. She warned that these chemicals contaminate humans, animals, and the entire “web of life.” She wrote that “the central problem of our age has therefore become the contamination of [the] total environment.” Considered very controversial at first, her ideas became the foundation of the modern environmental movement.

Mary Shadd Cary(1823–1893)
Teacher, Journalist, Lawyer
Cary was born free in Delaware and taught for 10 years in schools for free blacks. In 1851, she moved to Canada to help blacks who had fled after the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 but were being fleeced by the sponsoring society. In 1853, she edited the helpful paper Provincial Freeman. In 1869, she moved to Washington, earned a law degree from Howard University in 1883, and lectured on woman suffrage and the need for education for blacks and race improvement.

Willa Cather (1873–1947)
Cather wrote novels and short stories dealing with the struggles of European immigrants in the harsh environment of frontier Nebraska. After four years as an editor for McClure’s in New York, Cather published her first novel in 1912 titled Alexander’s Bridge. In 1923, she won the Pulitzer Prize for One of Ours. With strong, independent female characters, her novels capture pioneer traditions and also their collapse in the twentieth century.

Pamela S. Chasek, Ph.D (b.1961)
Founder and Editor, Earth Negotiations Bulletin
New York
Pamela S. Chasek has for 22 years demonstrated her passionate commitment to working to save the planet in her writing and in her work planning a climate change awareness campaign for the National Wildlife Foundation in the 1980’s. She founded the Earth Negotiations Bulletin in1992, created an environmental studies major at Manhattan College, and continues working each day to create a green campus.

Linda Chavez-Thompson (1944)
Labor Leader
Linda Chavez-Thompson, the daughter of sharecroppers, worked as an agricultural laborer before joining the labor union, eventually rising through the ranks of the AFL-CIO to become the first person of color, and the first woman, elected to be the Executive Vice-President of the AFL-CIO in 1995.

Lynne Cherry(b.1952)
Author, Environmental Appreciation and Education Books
Lynne Cherry is the author/illustrator of The Great Kapok Tree and thirty+ other award-winning children’s books that teach respect for the earth. Flute’s Journey: the Life of a Wood Thrush focused national media attention on conservation efforts to save the 60 acre Belt Woods in Md. when Lynne and students were featured on Sunday Morning News With Charles Osgood.

Judy Chicago (b. 1939)
Judy Chicago is an artist, author, feminist, educator, and intellectual whose art has been exhibited in the United States and internationally. Her most well-known work, “The Dinner Party,” is a symbolic history of women in Western Civilization. Executed between 1974 and 1979 by hundreds of volunteers, it is now permanently housed at the Brooklyn Museum. Chicago also created the “Birth Project” (1980–1985) and the “Holocaust Project” (1993).

Shirley Chisholm (1924–2005)
Activist and Congresswoman
In 1968, Chisholm became the first black woman elected to Congress where she served for 14 years. In 1972, she made history by campaigning for nomination by the Democratic Party for President, the first woman of color to seek the nation’s highest office. Since her retirement from politics in 1982 she has lectured and written on human rights issues. As a professor at Mount Holyoke College, her courses included political science and women’s studies.

Gillian Christie
President and Owner of Christie Communications
As CEO of Christie Communications, a full-service, organic marketing company exclusively helping ethical businesses, socially conscious organizations and charities broaden their impact through effective communication services, Gillian Christie has been helping organizations make peace profitable. The agency’s non-profit arm, Christie CommUnity Foundation, helps businesses partner with developing nations to facilitate growth, health and economic prosperity in communities such as Sudan, Sri Lanka and Rwanda.

Septima Clark (1898–1987)
Educator, Civil Rights Activist
Believing literacy to be the key to social and political power, Septima Clark trained teachers to work in citizenship schools across the south, teaching basic skills and empowering southern blacks to stand up for their rights as Americans. As an executive staff member of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, Clark took the SCLC’s voter-registration and teacher-training programs into the deep south and registered thousands of new voters.

Mary Cleave(b.1947)
Environmental Engineer and Astronaut
New York     District of Columbia
Dr. Cleave was a mission specialist at NASA and flew on space flights in 1985 and 1989. Her extensive research is in the field of soil and water pollution with a special focus on the need for minimum river flow to help maintain certain game fish. She served as NASA Associate Administrator for the Science Mission and also managed NASA’s Ocean Color Satellite Program in Washington, DC.

Hillary Rodham Clinton(b. 1947)
Secretary of State
New York     USA
While serving in the United States Senate, Senator Clinton worked to secure federal legislation to protect the environment both on the Senate’s Environment and Public Works Committee and as the senior Democrat on the Fisheries, Wildlife and Water subcommittee. She co-sponsored the Petroleum Consumer Price Gouging Protection Act and Close the Enron Loophole Act to enable the President to declare an energy emergency and trigger federal gouging protections.

Mignon Leticia Clyburn(b. 1962)
South Carolina Public Service Commissioner (6 th District)
South Carolina
Mignon Clyburn was elected and presently serves as Commissioner of the South Carolina Public Service Commission since 1998. In 2002, she was elected as Chair of the Commission. Prior to her role at the Commission, Ms. Clyburn served as editor, publisher, and general manager of the Coastal Times Newspaper. She is very active in both Richland and Charleston county communities.

Alice Coachman (b.1923)
Olympic Athlete
Coachman won her first Amateur Athletic Union national championship in the high jump in 1939. By 1946, she held national track and field championships in 50 and 100 meter dashes, 400 meter relay, and running high jump. Coachman was the first black woman to win a gold medal in the Olympics when she won in the high jump in London in 1948. Coachman entered the Track and Field Hall of Fame in 1975. Retired from competition, she coaches many young athletes.

Jacqueline Cochran (1910–1980)
World Renowned Pilot
Cochran began flying in 1932. She began competing in the Bendix Transcontinental Air Race in 1935 and won it in 1938. In 1941, she was a flight captain in the British Air Transport Auxiliary. Returning to America, she became the director of the Women’s Air Force Service Pilots. In 1945, she was awarded the Distinguished Service Medal. In 1953, Cochran became the first woman to break the sound barrier. Cochran received more than 200 awards as a pilot.

Ellie M. Cohen
Ellie M. Cohen, Executive Director of PRBO Conservation Science (founded as Pt. Reyes Bird Observatory) has over 30 years of non-profit and for-profit management, fundraising, and policy expertise. Ms. Cohen brings her perspective as a scientist and public policy advisor to the topic of climate change. PRBO is an award winning center for bird ecology research advancing biodiversity conservation on land and at sea.

Bessie Coleman (1896–1926)
Pioneering Pilot
Coleman, denied admission to American aviation schools, learned French and went to Europe where she took lessons from French and German aviators and learned to fly the German Fokker plane. In 1922, she earned an international pilot’s license and became the first licensed black woman pilot. She became a stunt flyer where she thrilled observers and earned the title, “Brave Bessie.” She founded a black aviation school and lectured at African-American schools.

Madie Collins ( b.1950s)
Founder of P.A.W. Animal Sanctuary
In 2003,
Madi gave up her corporate job in New York to return to her native community of Caye Caulker, Belize in 2003. Beginning with caring for one, sickly, abandoned cat, Ms. Collins became determined to help all the island’s cats. Facing mountains of obstacles, lack of funds, and opposition from people, she was able to accomplish her dream of establishing a cat sanctuary.

Jill Ker Conway (b.1934)
Educator, Writer, Historian
Conway earned a Ph.D. from Harvard in 1969 where she studied the intellectual experiences of earlier American women. She was the first woman president of Smith College, serving from 1975 to 1985. Realizing the need for equality in pay and opportunity for women, she set up a research project, Women and Social Change. In addition to writing the histories of many American women, Conway has also written three autobiographical books.

Mary S. “Mimi” Cooper (b.1943)
Teacher and Environmental Activist
Mary S. “Mimi” Cooper is an activist with a burning desire for positive change who has acted as an “environmental conscience” in many situations. She helped start a Baltimore hazardous waste day, is a director of Rachel Carson Council, was on the National Conservation Committee of the Garden Club of America, and has taught at the Irvine Nature Center.

Betsy Damon
United States    China
Betsy Damon, an environmental artist and activist focusing on water, is a practical visionary and founder of Keepers of the Waters (in 1991) which supports collaborations between artists, scientists, and citizens to restore, preserve, and remediate their water sources. The Living Water Garden ( Chengdu) and the Olympic Forest Park ( Beijing) are two of her most well known projects.

Dr. Margaret Bryan Davis( b.1931)
Behavioral Biologist
Margaret Davis was named Regents Professor of Ecology, Evolution, and Behavioral Biology at the University of Minnesota in 1983. Her groundbreaking study of the history of the migration of forest communities during the past 14,000 years has significant implications on various theories of global warning. Her memberships include the National Academy of Sciences and the International Association for Vegetation Science.

Dorothy Day (1897–1980)
Social Reformer
Co-founder of the Catholic Worker Movement in 1933, Day dedicated her life to improving living conditions for the poor. She developed new ways of combating social ills, including the “direct mutual aid” concept, teaching the poor to help one another. Writer, suffragist, speaker, activist and publisher, Day aided conscientious objectors in World War II, demonstrated against the Vietnam war and supported the organizing efforts of farm workers in California.

Ada Deer (b.1935)
American Indian and Civil Rights Activist
Deer was the first member of the Menominee tribe of Wisconsin to graduate from the University of Wisconsin-Madison and earned an MS in Social Work from Columbia. Deer led her tribe in gaining passage of the Menominee Restoration Act, which restored their land and treaty rights as American Indians. At the national level, Deer became Deputy of Indian Affairs and is now the Director of the American Indian Studies Program at the University of Wisconsin at Madison.

Emily Dickinson (1830–1886)
Dickinson attended Amherst Academy and spent one year at Mount Holyoke Female Seminary. She returned to her home in 1848 and rarely traveled. She probably began writing poetry in the 1860s. Her correspondent, Thomas Higginson, counseled her against publication, but her school mate and lifelong friend Helen Hunt Jackson encouraged Dickinson to allow a few to be published in the 1870s. After her death, 1,775 pieces were found and published.

Dorothea Dix (1802–1887)
Social Reformer
Dix started helping the mentally ill and prisoners when she visited the East Cambridge jail for women inmates in 1841. She saw the horrible conditions in the jail where mental patients and prisoners were thrown together in filth, some chained or kept in cages. She documented conditions there and in many states, persuaded legislatures across the nation to build more than 100 mental hospitals in the next 50 years and suggested many reforms in jails.

Marjory Stoneman Douglas (1890–1998)
Marjory Stoneman Douglas distinguished literary career encompassed her work as a true naturalist, discouraging the ever growing commercial development in South Florida. In 1947, she published one of the best known conservation books to date, The Everglades: River of Grass. Her successful preservation campaign resulted in the establishment the Everglades National Park and in 1969 she helped found the conservation organization, Friends of the Everglades.

Caitlin Alexandra Dunbar (1989–2004)
Caitlin Dunbar’s lifelong interest in nature and the outdoors lives on in the Caitlin Dunbar Girl Scout nature center established in her name by family, friends, and the Girl Scouts of Central Maryland following her sudden death from leukemia at age 15. This nature center offer stewardship activities on rescued wildlife and “hands on” environmental opportunities for Scouts and visitors to enjoy and appreciate.

Virginia Foster Durr(1903–1999)
Civil Rights Activist and Author
Virginia Foster Durr was born near Birmingham in 1903, her long life bridged the post-Civil War era to the American Civil Rights Movement.  The granddaughter of a former slave holder, she became an ostracized anti-racist convert. Her amazing life of determined tenacity testifies to the ability of an individual to be transformed by observation, experience, and basic sense of right and wrong from an unquestioning racist to a courageous activist, organizer, and leader for social justice.

Kathleen Eagan ( b.1943 )
Mayor, Community Activist, Funder
Kathleen Eagan founded four organizations to protect the Truckee River in Truckee. She fought powerful state and federal interests who tried to destroy the flow of the River. One of her colleagues commented, “they never had a chance.” She has led the restoration of hundreds of acres of meadow, wetland and stream habitat. Kathleen’s work demonstrates the power of each of us protecting the place we love. “If we don’t, who else will?”

Amelia Earhart (1897–1937)
Pioneering Aviator
Earhart was the first woman to fly solo across the Atlantic Ocean in 1932. She was the first person to fly solo non-stop from Hawaii to California in 1935 and the first to fly solo round-trip from the U.S. to Mexico. Five years later, after a dazzling array of “firsts,” Earhart disappeared attempting the first ‘round-the-world flight along the equator. Her adventurous life encouraged many to believe that women were capable of anything they could imagine.

Sylvia Alice Earle (b.1935)
Oceanographer and Environmentalist
New Jersey    Alaska    Hawaii
Sylvia Earle was the first woman chief scientist of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. She led the investigations of the impact of the burning of Kuwait’s oil fields and the devastation caused by the Exxon Vladez in Prince William Sound in Alaska. With a group of other women scientists she lived underwater for 2 weeks to study marine environment and the effects of isolation on humans.

Sister Claretta Easter (1901–1998)
Science and Ecology Teacher
Sister Claretta taught at various Catholic elementary and high schools. She was instrumental in the formation of the Department of Outdoor Education in Grant County, Wisconsin. The mapping out of nature trails and their naming and signing were evidence of her interest in education. A registered certified tree farmer, she planned and first planted a tree farm in 1971. Contact Susan Scott at for additional information about Sister Claretta Easter.

Elizabeth Eckford (b.1942)
Student Integrator
Eckford was one of nine students selected to integrate Little Rock, Arkansas high school in 1957. Integration plans were postponed at the last minute, but Eckford did not get the message. She arrived alone and was taunted, jeered, and accosted. Photographs of her grace under pressure captured her agony and became an international symbol of the oppression of black students. After weeks of mob violence, Federal troops finally escorted the students on Sept. 25.

Marian Wright Edelman (b.1939)
Children Rights Advocate, Civil Rights Activist
From her earliest years, Edelman was encouraged to give hope and aid to others. As a lawyer, civil rights activist, and founder of the Children’s Defense Fund, she has provided a strong authoritative voice for those who have been denied the power to speak for themselves. For almost 40 years, she has advocated for quality health care, immunizations, nutritious food, and educational opportunities, providing hope and possibility to countless numbers.

Gertrude B. Elion (1918–1999)
Nobel Prize Biologist
Elion shared the 1988 Nobel Prize in Medicine for pioneering work in inventing drugs to help in successful organ transplants, and others to counter acute leukemia, kidney disease and arthritis. They focused their research on the genetic differences between healthy and diseased cells. As scientist emeritus, Elion was named research professor of medicine at Duke University. In 1991, Elion became the first woman inducted into the National Inventor’s Hall of Fame.

Drew Gilpin Faust
First Woman President of Harvard University
The selection of Drew Gilpin Faust to be the twenty-eighth president of Harvard University has been headlined as “a historic first” by the Christian Science Monitor.It is indeed a fitting reward and recognition of Dr. Faust’s scholarship and leadership by this prestigious institution founded in 1636, the first university in America. Its strict male-only environment broke in 1919 when it accepted the first woman faculty member. Harvard began admitting women to graduate programs in the 1940s, although it did not admit women to its undergraduate program until 1973. The irony is that Harvard has been aided by generous grants from women since its inception. In 1641 Anne Radcliffe, later Lady Mowlson, bequeathed 100 pounds sterling to establish the first scholarship for poor boys. Eleanor Elkins Widener contributed $3.5 millions for the Widener Library, but women could not use this fine building and its books until the end of the 1940s. Now committees have been formed to determine how to achieve parity.

Ilia J. Fehrer (1927–2007)
Ilia Fehrer was one of the strongest pro-preservation voices in Maryland, heard not only when Assateague Isalnd’s future was in question but also when ecosystems beyond her own coastal bays were threatened. It is because of her vision, advocacy and tenacity that we can and future generations will enjoy the Assateaque Island National Seashore almost as our European ancestors found it.

Laura Capon Fermi (1907–1977)
Science Author and Community Activist
Laura Capon Fermi joined with other women to form the Cleaner Air Committee of Hyde-Park Kenwood ( CAC), near the University of Chicago. From 1959 to 1972, the CAC lobbied and educated the public about the dangers of pollution from coal-burning furnaces and cars. The results were local building shifting from coal to cleaner gas or oil furnaces and a ban on the burning garbage in apartment buildings.

Caroline Rose Foster(1877–1977)
Farmer; First County Deputy Sheriff; Community Organizer; Benefactor
New Jersey
Caroline Rose Foster created and donated the first outdoor living historical farm in New Jersey, which remains a strong place for learning thirty-years after her death. An environmentalist, she worked to preserve the historic places within the County of Morris, New Jersey including the Morris County Park Commission which preserves 38 county parks and over 17,500 acres of land in northern New Jersey.

Matilda Elizabeth Frelinghuysen (1888–1969)
New Jersey
Matilda Elizabeth Frelinghuysen, was a philanthropist of the New England Conservatory of Music and a supporter of the Masterworks Chorus. She donated the land for the establishment of the Morris County Free Library. She donated her Whippany Farm Estate of 127 acres so that future generations would be able to enjoy and appreciate the beauty that surrounded what she considered the ‘golden age.’

Pamela A. Frucci (b.1932)
Retired Teacher, Community Activist, Township Trustee
Pamela A. Frucci has been a waste-not addict since reading Cheaper by the Dozen_as a teenager and marveling how the efficiency-expert father cut down on waste. She served on the Michigan Resource Recovery Commission before waste reduction and recycling caught on. In 1983 she founded the Downriver Recycling Center. The Fruccis put out almost zero trash and recycle the rest, even recycling lint into pillows.

Matilda Joslyn Gage (1826–1898)
Women’s Rights Activist, Theorist, and Historian
Matilda Joslyn Gage was a 19th century suffragist, historian of women, newspaper editor, author and lecturer, woman’s rights activist and theorist, advocate for civil rights, and abolitionist, who served as a top officer in the National Woman Suffrage Association (NWSA) for twenty years. A committed abolitionist who opened her home as a stop on the Underground Railroad, she challenged the laws of her nation, risking arrest and imprisonment by helping fugitive slaves escape to freedom. Gage wrote about the superior position of Haudenosaunee (Iroquois) women and supported treaty rights and Native sovereignty. Influenced by the Haudenosaunee egalitarian culture, she in turn influenced the utopian feminist vision of her son-in-law, L. Frank Baum, in his fourteen Oz books.

Felisa Rincon de Gautier(1897–1994)
Political Activist
Gautier began her political activism campaigning for woman suffrage in Puerto Rica which was won in 1932. She joined the Popular Democratic Party and in 1940 was president of its San Juan committee. From 1948 to 1968, she was mayor of San Juan. In her open government, many schools, daycare, and health centers were built. She was on the National Committee of the United States Democratic Party and was a delegate to the national conventions until 1992.

Lois Marie Gibbs (b.1951)
Executive Director, Center for Health, Environment & Justice
In 1978, a young housewife named Lois Gibbs discovered that her child’s elementary school was built on top of a toxic-chemical dump. Determined to do something, she organized her neighbors into the Love Canal Homeowners Association, which worked for more than 2 years to have the community relocated. In 1981, Lois created the Center for Health, Environment & Justice, (CHEJ), an organization that has assisted over 10,000 grassroots movements.

Althea Gibson(1927–2003)
Olympic Athlete
Gibson was the first black tennis player to win at Wimbledon, 1957 and 1958; the Associated Press named her Woman Athlete of the Year for 1958. She had dominated women’s amateur tennis from 1947–1957, and in 1950, she was the first black woman to play in a major U.S. tournament. Gibson also played professional golf from 1963–1967. Gibson was the first black woman to join the Ladies Professional Golf Association (LPGA).

Lillian Gilbreth(1878–1972)
Industrial Engineer
Gilbreth and her husband Frank pioneered industrial management techniques; as a widow, she applied these time and motion studies to home management and to assisting handicapped people at home and in the workplace. From 1935 to 1948, she was a professor of management at Purdue University and consultant on careers for women, creating a more realistic attitude toward the place of women in industry.

Ruth Bader Ginsburg (b.1933)
Supreme Court Justice
Ginsburg became the second woman justice on the Supreme Court when she was nominated by President Clinton and confirmed in 1993. She graduated from Harvard and then Columbia Law School. At Harvard, she was editor of the Harvard Law Review. She argued the first sex-bias case before the Supreme Court and won 5 of the 6 cases which she argued dealing with unequal or unfair treatment of women.

Mary Katherine Goddard (1738–1816)
Printer of the Declaration of Independence
Goddard and her mother published the Providence Gazette from 1765 to 1768. In 1774, she moved to Baltimore to help her brother with the Maryland Journal, Baltimore’s first newspaper; she became publisher in 1775. In January 1777, she printed the Declaration of Independence with the names of the signers. She became postmaster of Baltimore in 1775, an office she held for 14 year. She was removed from her position because she was a woman.

Emma Goldman (1869–1940)
Social Reformer, Anarchist
Goldman immigrated to the United States in 1885. She lectured and wrote about the dreadful working and living conditions of poor people. In 1893, she was jailed for inciting unemployed workers to riot. As a drama critic she helped introduce Ibsen, Shaw, Strindberg and others to American audiences. In 1917, she was jailed for two years for agitating against military conscription and then deported. In Europe, she continued to write and lecture for civil rights.

Jane Goodall (b.1934)
Wildlife Researcher, Educator, and Conservationist
Great Britain   Africa    USA
A young Jane Goodall went to Africa to study chimpanzees and soon became their leading crusader. Her research work expanded to include numerous conservation efforts in Africa and worldwide. Her global nonprofit Institute empowers people to make a difference for all living things, by creating healthy ecosystems, promoting sustainable livelihoods and nurturing new generations of committed, active citizens.

Amy Goodman (b.1957)
USA     International
As a journalist for Democracy Now Amy Goodman has interviewed leaders throughout the world about the pressing issues of war and peace as well as global warming and its related impact. Coverage of war and peace as well as human rights movements have caused her to brave some of the most intense world crises. Her goal as a journalist is inform her audience about the threats to the planet.

Sunshine Goodmorning (b.1974)
Facilities Maintenance Specialist
Sunshine works for the Washington DC National Park Service Maintenance Office from her home. While at Yosemite National Park, she served as chair of the EEO Committee during which she presented an outdoor showing of “Iron Jawed Angels” with a picnic dinner. El Portal is where she remodeled a historical building and chaired the 100th community celebration.

Katharine Graham (1917–2001)
Graham was the first woman president of a Fortune 500 company when she became president and then publisher of the Washington Post from 1963 to 1979. In 1971, she resisted tremendous pressure and threats when she printed the Pentagon Papers. In 1972, she supported the aggressive investigation of the Watergate burglary. The Post received a Pulitzer Prize for public service in 1973. Her autobiography Personal History won a Pulitzer Prize in 1998.

Martha Graham (1894–1991)
Dancer, Choreographer
The foremost innovator in modern dance, Martha Graham’s 50-year dancing career began in 1920. She founded the Martha Graham School of Contemporary Dance in 1929 and later, dance companies in Israel and London. Her dances covered many themes, including Greek myths, biblical stories, lives of Joan of Arc and Emily Dickinson. In 1973, she published The Notebooks of Martha Graham, and in 1976, she was awarded the Medal of Freedom by President Ford.

Martha Wright Griffiths (1912–2003)
Congresswoman Who Successfully Added Sex as a Protected Class in the 1964 Civil Rights Act
Martha Wright Griffiths was born on January 29, 1912 in Pierce City, Missouri.  As a young woman, she was inspired by the activism and leadership of her paternal grandmother, Jeanette Hinds Wright, a leading advocate for woman suffrage in Pierce City.  She was a champion debater in her public high school and continued on the debate team when she went to the University of Missouri. She went to law school at the University of Michigan and graduated in 1940 along with her husband, Hick Griffiths (making them the first married couple to graduate from the law school).

Angelina Grimké (1805-1879) and Sarah Grimké (1792–1873)
Abolitionists and Women’s Rights Advocates
The Grimké sisters, raised in a slave-holding South Carolina family, were among the first women to write and lecture against slavery. They wrote for the Liberator, and in 1836, Angelina published a pamphlet An Appeal to Christian Women of the South. Southern postmasters destroyed copies and a price was put on their heads. They stayed North. Even there, they were criticized for their boldness, but they led the way for other women to speak.

Juana Gutierrez (b.1933)
Political Activist and Community Organizer
Juana Gutierrez began her political activism by knocking on her neighbors’ doors. It was the beginning of her work to take back her community from outside interests. To give the community a powerful and effective voice, she organized the Madres de Este Los Angeles (MELASI).

Rebecca S. Halstead (b.1959)
Commanding General, 3rd Corps Support Command, Wiesbaden, Germany
Rebecca Halstead enter the United States Military Academy in 1977. She was one of 104 women to enter in the second class that included women, which was made possible in 1975, when President Gerald Ford signed into legislation the opening for women applicants at all service academies.

Fannie Lou Hamer(1917–1977)
Civil Rights Activist
Hamer devoted 15 years to winning voting rights for blacks in the South. Despite beatings by the police, losing her job, and being forced from her home, Hamer continued organizing and demanding recognition and power in national politics for southern blacks. In 1964, she led the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party delegation to the Democratic Convention, forcing a change in the representation of women and minorities within state delegations.

Alice Hamilton (1869–1970)
Occupational Safety and Health Pioneer
Hamilton was the first person to document the danger of industrial poisons like lead, phosphorus, and other chemicals in the work place. Her work at Hull House gave her the opportunity to fully investigate hazardous working conditions that led to accidents, deaths, and chronic illness. Her unprecedented work resulted in laws protecting workers and improving working conditions in this country and internationally.

Harmony Hammond (b.1944)
Harmony Hammond is an artist, art writer, and independent curator. A pioneer of the feminist art movement, she lectures, writes and publishes on feminist art, lesbian art, and the cultural representation of “difference”. She co-founded A.I.R., the first women’s cooperative art gallery in New York, (1972). She has had over 30 solo exhibitions and her work has been shown internationally. Her ground-breaking book Lesbian Art in America: A Contemporary History (Rizzoli, 2000) received a Lambda Literary Award.

Ann Hancock (b.1950)
Executive Director of Climate Protection Campaign
With over 25 years in community leadership, education, and fundraising, Ann Hancock has spearhead the most progressive climate protection campaign in the US, resulting in a comprehensive Plan to reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions 25% below 1990 levels by 2015 throughout their county. In 2001, she co-founded the Climate Protection Campaign and has been a sustainability planner for the County of Marin.

Frances Watkins Harper(1825–1911)
Abolitionist, Lecturer, Author
Harper was born free in Baltimore, attended the Union Seminary in Ohio, and taught in Pennsylvania in 1852. Unable to return to Maryland because she could be captured and sold, she began antislavery lectures and published articles, poems and stories. Her 1859 story, The Two Offers, is probably the first short story by a black author. Fighting racism took priority over woman suffrage; in 1896, she helped found and lead the National Association of Colored Women.

La Donna Harris (b.1931)
Indian Rights and Civil Activist
Harris, member of the Comanche tribe, has served since 1970 as president of Americans for Indian Opportunity (AIO), a multi-tribal organization devoted to improving life for American Indians. She has served on the National Rural Housing Conference and the National Association of Mental Health. Harris has expanded the AIO to include the “American Indian Ambassadors” program, which provides one-year fellowships for Native American students.

Dorothy Height(1912–2010)
As president of the National Council of Negro Women from 1958 until her death in 2010, her leadership gained international stature for the organization. Height worked with every president and civil rights leader for 60 years. Her more than 50 awards include the 1989 Citizens Medal Award for distinguished service to the country, the 1993 Spingarn Medal from the NAACP, and the Congressional Gold Medal, its highest award, in 2004, for her work in promoting AIDS education.

Lillian Hellman (1905–1984)
Playwright, Screenwriter, Author
Beginning with The Children’s Hour in 1934, Hellman’s award-winning plays presented powerful and bitter pictures of intolerance and exploitation. One of many Hollywood screenwriters who refused to testify before the House Un-American Activities Committee when asked about the politics of her friends and associates, Hellman was blacklisted from 1948 to the ‘60s. Her book, An Unfinished Woman, won a National Book Award in 1969.

Aileen Hernandez(b.1926)
Union Organizer and Human Rights Activist
Aileen Hernandez’s commitment to world-wide justice has been fueled by traveling and meeting with women throughout the world to gain a global perspective on humanitarian issues. Currently, she chairs the California Women’s Agenda (CAWA), a network of 600 organizations dedicated to implementing the plan of action adopted at the Fourth World Conference on Women in Beijing, China in 1995.

Edna Hibel(b.1917)
Colorist, painter, stone lithographer, serigrapher, etcher, sculptress, and filmmaker
Edna Hibel was the youngest artist at the time to have a painting purchased by a major American museum for its permanent collection in 1940. Her thousands of followers know her sensitive portrayals of mothers and children from all cultures. She uses many media on a wide variety of surfaces. Internationally renowned, she is the only foreign artist to twice exhibit her work in the Soviet Union, and the only foreign woman to produce a television documentary in that country.

Anita Hill(b.1956)
In 1991, Hill testified before an all-white, all-male Senate Judiciary Committee that she had been harassed by US Supreme Court nominee Clarence Thomas. Her testimony led to national awareness and the creation and implementation of new policies by businesses, educational institutions, and government to identify and stop sexual harassment. She has written a book, Speaking the Truth to Power. In 1997, she joined the faculty at Brandeis University.

Julia Butterfly Hill(b.1974)
Environmental Hero
On December 10, 1997, 23-year-old Julia “Butterfly” Hill climbed into a 180 foot California Coast Redwood tree to prevent loggers from cutting it down. She put her own life on the line to save the life of a forest that was under immediate threat of destruction. She spent two years on that tree-top and attracted world-wide attention for her non-violent action in defense of the forest.

Linda M. Hiltabrand(b.1953)
Environmental Protection Specialist, IL Department of Natural Resources, Office of Mines and Minerals
For 30 years Linda Hiltbrand has been employed by the Illinois Office of Mines and Minerals representing the state regulatory authority in northern Illinois. Her work with the sand and gravel producers to make sure they are following their approved reclamation plans has resulted in several sites winning awards for their innovative post-mining land uses.

Dolores Huerta (b.1930)
Labor Union Administrator
In the 1950s, Huerta began teaching in a farm workers’ community and saw the brutal poverty surrounding her students. In 1962, she co-founded with Ceasar Chavez the United Farm Workers Union. She organized the members and through non-violence tactics, mounted a successful boycott of California table grapes. Her goal in life is to empower farm workers with information and skills to help them secure better living and working conditions.

Mary Hultman (b.1955)
Educational Naturalist
Serving as one of the first naturalists for the Stark County Park District in Ohio since 1986, Mary Hultman has been instrumental in educating thousands of local school children. She has pioneered the use of live wildlife in the classroom, and has mentored hundreds of Boy and Girl Scouts. She also established the Sanders Wildlife Rehabilitation Center that treats more than 1,300 animals per year.

Martha Brookes Hutcheson (1871–1959)
Landscape Architect
New Jersey
Martha Brookes Hutcheson was one of the first women landscape architects in America. She incorporated native plants in all of her designs and blended the surrounding areas with formally executed gardens. In 1923, she published The Spirit of the Garden, a book about gardens primarily using those she had designed to illustrate her principles of landscape architecture.

Dr. Roz Iasillo (b.1958)
Environmental Science Educator
Dr. Roz Iasillo developed the first environmental science class taught at the secondary level in Illinois. She has influenced and inspired thousands of her students to live sustainable lives and be good stewards of the earth’s resources by volunteering at community clean-up days, prairie seed collecting, and the yearly removal of non-native plants from local forest preserves. Her enthusiasm and commitment to our earth is boundless.

Jovita Idár(1885–1946)
Idár reported discrimination against Mexican children and the lynchings of Mexicans by Texas Rangers for her father’s newspaper, La Cronica. In 1911, she co-founded La Liga Femenil Mexicanista (The League of Mexican Women) and was its first president. The women formed free schools for Mexican children and provided necessities for the poor. During the Mexican Revolution, Idár organized La Cruz Blanca (the White Cross) to nurse the wounded on both sides.

Pam Iorio
Mayor of the City of Tampa
Mayor Iorio is committed to making tangible improvements during this decade that will protect our natural environment for future generations. The programs and services are designed to be economically viable, environmentally sound and socially equitable to become a green city. The opportunity to partner with all residents in making changes to ensure our city is ready to meet future challenges.

Barbara Haney Irvine (b.1944)
Founding President, Alice Paul Centennial Foundation, Inc.(now Alice Paul Institute)
Barbara Irvine is a national advocate for the recognition and preservation of women’s historic sites. Based on her work to save one woman’s site in New Jersey, Barbara learned that nationwide most historic resources associated with women were generally unrecognized and in jeopardy of being lost forever.She assumed a major role in calling attention to the plight of women’s sites and the interpretation of women’s history at historic sites throughout the United States. 

Shirley Jackson(b.1946)
In 1973, Jackson was the first black woman to receive a Ph.D. from MIT. In 1991, she became a professor of physics at Rutgers University. President Clinton named her chair of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission in 1995, where she helped set up the International Nuclear Regulators Association in 1997 to provide assistance to other nations on matters of nuclear safety. In 1999, she became president of the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.

Mae Jemison (b.1956)
With a medical degree from Cornell University, Dr. Jemison spent three years as a Peace Corps Medical Officer in West Africa, and then worked in a refugee camp in Thailand. In 1992, now a NASA astronaut, she participated aboard Spacelab-J, the cooperative mission between the U.S. and Japan that conducted life science experiments in space. Jemison now pursues health care and science projects related to women and minorities.

Marietta Pierce Johnson (1864 1938)
Progressive Educator
Minnesota    Alabama
Marietta Johnson was one of the early pioneers of progressive education. She was a charismatic speaker who lectured all over the world on her unique philosophy of Organic Education. Organic Education is dedicated to creating an environment that fosters freedom of expression, love for learning, and tolerance. In 1907, she founded her Organic School of Education in Fairhope, Alabama where she worked until her death in 1938.

Victoria Johnston (b.1953)
Renaissance Woman
Victoria Johnston is the Project Facilitator for the Salmon Creek Falls Environmental Center in Occidental, California, which provides educational opportunities for students and the greater community fostering eco-sustainability. This innovative enterprise seeks to inspire a revolution in building design and teach environmental green principles. It will be the first building in Sonoma County and California public K-8 school to obtain a LEEDTM Platinum Certification.

Winona LaDuke(b.1960)
Author and Environmentalist
Winona LaDuke has worked for nearly three decades on the land issues of the White Earth Reservation in Minnesota including litigation over land rights in the 1980’s. She currently serves as the Director of Honor the Earth and Founding Director of White Earth Land Recovery Project.

Mary Harris “Mother” Jones(1837–1930)
Labor Organizer
“Mother” Jones became a labor organizer at the age of 50 and then led strikes in mines and publicized dangers of child labor in textile mills for the next 50 years. She traveled constantly without a permanent home. Jones led miners’ wives armed only with brooms and mops when they chased off Colorado strikebreakers. She led a march of Pennsylvania child mill workers to President Roosevelt’s home on Long Island to dramatize the evils of child labor.

Elizabeth Donnell Kay (1895–1987)
Nurse, Businesswomen, Charity Worker, Environmentalist
New Jersey      Florida
In 1924, Elizabeth Donnell Kay, started a home-based herb mail-order business. By 1932, she was teaching about the importance of preserving native plants and educating farmers about the harmful practice of setting fire to their fields each year after harvest. In 1960, Elizabeth and her husband created the Pine Jog Environmental Sciences Center, which today under the auspices of Florida Atlantic University, 16,000 children visit annually.

Helen Keller (1880–1968)
Advocate for Disadvantaged
Despite being deaf, blind, and unable to speak, Keller became an active writer and international public speaker. She learned to communicate in 1887 with the help of her teacher, Anne Sullivan. In 1904, she became the first deaf-blind person to earn a college degree. Her books and lectures advocating rights for disabled people helped the public recognize the potentials of people with physical limitations. She also supported suffrage for women and peace.

Billie Jean King (b.1943)
Tennis Star and Women’s Rights Advocate
The most successful woman in professional tennis, King was top-ranked five times and was in the top ten for 17 years. She was the first woman athlete to earn $100,000 a year, the holder of the most Wimbledon titles, as well as the first woman to coach a professional team. She has aggressively fought for equality for women athletes, for honest professionalism in tennis, and for implementation of Title IX in all sports.

Coretta Scott King (1927–2006)
Civil Rights Activist
King graduated from Antioch College in music and gave concert programs in the 1940s. In 1962, King was a delegate to Women Strike for Peace conference in Geneva. Now she continues the civil rights work of her husband. She is the founding president of the Martin Luther King, Jr., Center for Nonviolent Social Change. In the 1980s, she led demonstrations against South African apartheid system. In 1969, she wrote a book titled My Life With Martin Luther King Jr.

Maxine Hong Kingston (b.1940)
Kingston’s childhood in California was filled with Chinese traditions and stories, which sometimes conflicted with the “American” ideas she was learning in school. Her first book, The Woman Warrior: Memoirs of a Girlhood Among Ghosts, won the National Book Critics Circle Award for nonfiction in 1976. It was followed by two equally fine books which also celebrate the heritage and contributions of Chinese-American people.

Tsuyako “Sox” Kitashima(1919–2006)
Civil Rights Activist
For a decade, Kitashima was a leader in the successful movement to win reparations for Japanese-Americans who had lost their homes and possessions and were forced to live in internment camps during WWII. After years of pressure from Kitashima and other activists, in 1989 Congress passed the Entitlement Bill, providing $20,000 to each surviving internee and an official apology for the internment.

Eryn Klosko (b.1971)
Assistant Professor, Physical Sciences
New York      USA
Eryn Klosko teaches the science of global warming and sustainability. She spearheaded Westchester Community College’s participation in Focus the Nation in 2008. She has published extensively for New York Science Teacher, Computers and GeoScience, and Geophysical Research Letters and has worked for the SCEC E-cubed project. She also advises a club of students engaged in sustainability efforts.

Yuri Kochiyama (1921–2014)
Civil Rights Advocate
Born in California, Kochiyama was interned in a Japanese relocation center during WW II. After her release, she and her family moved to New York City where she took part in civil rights demonstrations. She met Malcolm X in 1963; they worked together to call attention to the struggle of oppressed people. Kochiyama founded Asian Americans for Action to link liberation efforts of blacks and Asian Americans by bringing down barriers and building bridges.

Maggie Kuhn(1905–1995)
Activist for Senior Citizens
In 1970, Kuhn founded the Gray Panthers to fight ageism, encouraging old and young people to work together. Kuhn was an outspoken advocate of rights for older people, showing that old people are strong, vibrant, and intelligent. Through the Gray Panthers, she sought improved health care, housing, and economic well-being for senior citizens. She wrote three books and worked internationally to promote a better understanding of human aging.

Anne Bowes La Bastille (b.1938)
New York
Ecologist Anne LaBastille studied a flightless bird, the great pied-billed grebe, which survived in spite of living in a wildlife refuge, earthquakes, and polluted streams likely to make the species extinct. In the early 1970s Dr. La Bastille moved to a cabin in New York’s Adirondacks. Her solitary life led her to write Woodswoman. In 1980, she profiled 15 women naturalists in Women and Wilderness.

Osprey Orielle Lake (b.1959)
Sculptor, Public Speaker, Teacher
Osprey Orielle Lake, one of the world’s few female monument makers working in allegorical and abstract images. She utilizes the power and beauty of nature-themed images and narratives to inspire people to learn about and care for the earth. Her international art projects bring attention to protecting the environment by enlivening the urban landscape with statues that celebrate nature.

Abbe Land (b.1955)
Mayor Pro Tempore City of West Hollywood
Abbe Land, California, has initiated several of West Hollywood’s landmark environmental policies, including its Green Building Ordinance, the nation’s first mandatory program for commercial and residential buildings. Because of her efforts, the City’s new library will be a certified LEED Silver building. She co-sponsored a Heritage Tree Preservation Program to protect the City’s trees and increase its urban canopy.

Marian Van Landingham (b.1937)
Artist and Community Leader
Marion Van Landingham, with her belief that artistic expression is central to the health of a community, convinced the City of Alexandria, Virginia, to support her vision of an innovative partnership between the city and 185 artists. Her plan created the Torpedo Factory Art Center, which now serves as the anchor of Alexandria’s revitalized waterfront and a beacon of culture and community.

Dorothea Lange (1895–1965)
Lange photographed bread lines in the depression years, living conditions of migrant workers in California in the 1930s, and documented the treatment of Japanese-Americans in WWII in the crowded internment camps. These powerful photographic images brought public attention to the inhumane conditions. “If any documents of this turbulent age are justified to endure,” Ansel Adams wrote, “he photographs of Dorothea Lange shall, most certainly.”

Emma Lazarus (1849–1887)
Poet, Translator
Lazarus is best known for her sonnet The New Colossus which is inscribed on the base of the Stature of Liberty. She also published several volumes of poetry and novels. After the Russian pogroms of the 1880s, Lazarus became a spokeswoman for Judaism and was an early advocate of a national Jewish homeland in Palestine. She played a central part in setting up the Hebrew Technical Institute to aid the newly arrived Russian Jews in New York.

Brownie Ledbetter (b.1932)   
Civil Rights Advocate and Activist Working for Equal Opportunity for All People
In Brownie Ledbetter’s life, we see a lifetime of dedication to making the world a better place.  Her impact on a fair education for all is indelible. In response to the racial crisis in Little Rock, Arkansas in 1957, Brownie worked across racial lines to elect school board members one of the founding members of the Panel of American Women in Arkansas, in 1963. The Panel was composed of women of different ethnic and religious backgrounds, mothers of public school students who spoke to school, church and civic groups about their experiences and their commitment to diversity. In 1981 the Panel of American Women evolved into the Arkansas Public Policy Panel that organized and assisted grassroots groups, eventually founding the Arkansas Citizens Congress and Brownie Ledbetter served as founder and executive director for 20 years. Ledbetter founded the Arkansas Fairness Council, a coalition of education, labor, civil rights and women’s organizations advocating for fair taxes in 1983 and served as president and lobbyist of the Council for 15 years.

Lora Ledermann (b.1967)
Advertising, Marketing and PR Agency Owner and Creative Director
Lora Ledermann acts on her commitment to protecting the environment through business practices such as aggressive recycling programs and efforts to reduce waste and is contributing her professional skills by taking on pro-bono clients such as the one-year Save the Poles expedition to the North and South poles and Mount Everest to raise awareness of global warming and develop educational materials.

Lihua Lei (b.1966)
Multimedia Installation
Lihua Lei is one of the few artists with disability who have gone beyond the picture plane, breaking through to innovative installation and multimedia that is reflective of her life experiences. Her sculpture art has allowed her to do the installation pieces she conceives, since Installation Art does not generate much revenue. In recent years, she has created installations about breast cancer, her own affliction with polio, and her reaction to the terrorist attacks of 9/11.

Gerda Lerner (b.1920)
Lerner is the foremost historian in defining the scope and importance of women’s history. The Grimké Sisters from South Carolina (1967) was the first of her ten authoritative books on women’s history topics. Lerner has been insistent that theory and practice, consciousness and action, must dynamically inform each other. At the pinnacle of her career, Lerner’s two-volume Women in History (1986, 1993) mapped the origins and persistence of patriarchy and the resistance to it that we now call feminism.

Tania Léon (b.1943)
Composer and Conductor
Leon, born in Cuba, immigrated to New York in 1967, and continued her work of performing, directing, conducting and composing music. She directed and conducted the Broadway musical The Wiz and Dance in America for public television. In 1993, Leon was a composer for the New York Philharmonic, using gospel, jazz, Latin and African elements in her music. In 1994, Leon started the Sounds of the Americas festival. Her opera Scourge of Hyacinths premiered in 1994 and won Best Composition prize at Munich.

Donna Lewis (b.1972)
Curator of Biology, Dayton Society of Natural History
As a life-long environmental educator, Donna Lewis has dedicated her personal and professional life to creating an understanding of all animals. In addition to innovative public programs, her children’s books focus on introducing animals that tend to be under-appreciated, like bats and crows. As an active wildlife rehabilitator, Lewis has also traveled locally and globally in her efforts to educate others and rescue injured wildlife.

Suzanne Lewis (b.1956)
First Woman Superintendent in the History of Yellowstone National Park
Suzanne Lewis, becoming the first female Superintendent of Yellowstone National Park on February 10, 2002, testified to a 21st century change in the culture of the National Park Service.  There had been a time when women in the National Park Service (NPS) including pioneer rangers, superintendents, and maintenance workers had to fight to win the right to wear the traditional Stetson hat and the gray and green uniform that conferred full authority on their positions in the eyes of the public.  Today, the culture of the organization is visibly changed. NPS visitors now hear presentations that incorporate women’s roles in their exhibits and talks.  One-third of the fifteen thousand Park Service employees are women and twenty percent of the women represent minorities.  Clearly, Lewis is a important representative of a generation of women who are moving history forward.

Queen Lili’uokalani (1838–1917)
The last reigning monarch of Hawaii, Lili’uokalani inherited a difficult situation in 1891. Foreigners forced through a new constitution which took away voting rights from most Hawaiians. A revolution, encouraged by the American government, forced Lili’uokalani to abdicate in 1893 and in 1889, the Hawaiian Islands were annexed by the United States. Among her legacies are over 200 songs she composed, including the very popular Aloha Oe.

Maya Lin (b.1959)
Architect, Sculptor
Lin wrote, “Sculpture is like poetry, architecture is like prose.” As a Yale student in 1981, Lin’s design for the Vietnam Veterans Memorial was unanimously chosen from 14,241 models. Her Wall design is acclaimed as one of the greatest war memorials ever created. Among other designs, Lin created the Civil Rights Memorial at the Southern Poverty Law Center in Alabama and the Langston Hughes Library in Tennessee. In 2000, her book Boundaries was published.

Belva Lockwood (1830–1917)
Lawyer, Women’s Rights Activist

Spider Robinson (born November 24, 1948) is an American-born Canadian science fiction author.

Early life and education[edit]

Robinson was born in the Bronx, New York City, New York.[1] He attended a Catholic high school, spending his junior year in a seminary, followed by two years in a Catholic college, and five years[2] at the State University of New York at Stony Brook in the 1960s,[3] earning a Bachelor of Arts in English. While at Stony Brook, Spider earned a reputation as a great entertainer at campus coffeehouses and gatherings, strumming his guitar and singing in harmony with his female partner.[1]

In his 20s, he "spent several years in the woods, deliberately trying to live without technology."[4] In 1971, just out of college, he got a night job guarding sewers in New York City.[5] He wrote his first published science fiction story, "The Guy with The Eyes", to get out of that job.[5] In 1975 he married Jeanne Robinson, a choreographer, dancer, and SōtōZen monk,[6] who co-wrote his Stardance Trilogy. They had a daughter, Terri Luanna da Silva, who once worked for Martha Stewart.[7]

According to Robinson, he had always been known as "Robbie", a contraction of his last name, until he became sick of it, feeling "it was kind of a juvenile name for a college man."[8] He asked his friends for a new first name, and they came up with "Spider", though each for a different reason.[8]


Robinson made his first short-story sale in 1972 to Analog Science Fiction magazine. The story, "The Guy with the Eyes" (Analog February 1973), was set in a bar called Callahan's Place; Robinson would, off-and-on, continue to write stories about the denizens of Callahan's into the 21st century; the stories have been collected into a number of published books.[9] Robinson made several short-story sales to Analog, Galaxy Science Fiction magazine and others, and worked as a book reviewer for Galaxy magazine during the mid-to-late 1970s. In 1978–79 he contributed book reviews to the original anthology series Destinies.

Robinson's first published novel, Telempath (1976), was an expansion of his Hugo award-winning novella "By Any Other Name". Over the following three decades, Robinson on average released a book a year, including short story anthologies. In 1996–2005, he served as a columnist in the Op-Ed section (and briefly in the technology section) of the Globe and Mail.

In 2004, he pronounced himself "overjoyed" to begin working on a seven-page 1955 novel outline by the late Robert A. Heinlein to expand it into a novel. The book, titled Variable Star, was released on September 19, 2006. Robinson has always made his admiration for Heinlein very clear;[10] in an afterword to Variable Star he recounts the story of how on his first visit to a public library a librarian named Ruth Siegel "changed my life completely" by sizing up the child in front of her and handing him a copy of the Heinlein juvenile novel Rocket Ship Galileo, after which "the first ten books I ever read in my life were by Robert Heinlein, and they were all great." Early in Robinson's career, Heinlein even helped to support Robinson financially during an especially difficult period; Robinson was especially grateful because he knew that Heinlein, who at the time was supportive of the war in Vietnam, knew of Robinson's fervent opposition to the war.[11]

Robinson is also an admirer of mystery writer John D. MacDonald. Lady Sally McGee, from the Callahan's series, is apparently named in honor of Travis McGee, the central character in MacDonald's mystery novels.[citation needed] The lead character in Lady Slings The Booze frequently refers to Travis McGee as a role model. In Callahan's Key the patrons make a visit to the marina near Fort Lauderdale where the Busted Flush was usually moored in the McGee series. On Robinson's website there is a photo of him "at the address (now demolished) of 'The Busted Flush,' home of John D. MacDonald’s immortal character Travis McGee: Slip F-18, Bahia Mar Marina, Fort Lauderdale FL."[12] Similarly important to Robinson is writer Donald E. Westlake[13] and Westlake's most famous character, John Archibald Dortmunder.

Robinson's stance may be described as humanistic and humorous. He has frequently encouraged a positive attitude towards world issues, claiming that a pessimistic world view will yield pessimistic results. Frequently in his writing, the conflicts center around a science fiction issue with a human solution, following Theodore Sturgeon's definition of a good science fiction story.

Personal life[edit]

Robinson has resided in Canada for nearly 40 years, primarily in the provinces of Nova Scotia and British Columbia. He formerly lived in "an upscale district of Vancouver for a decade,"[14] and has lived on Bowen Island since approximately 1999.[1] He became a Canadian citizen in 2002, retaining his American citizenship.[15] Spider and Jeanne's only grandchild, Marisa, was born in 2009, as Jeanne was undergoing treatment for "a rare and virulent form of biliary cancer". Jeanne Robinson died May 30, 2010.[16] Their daughter Terri died on December 5, 2014, of breast cancer.[17]

Robinson suffered a heart attack on August 31, 2013, but recovered. Due to the health issues faced by his family he has not published a novel since 2008.[when?] However, Robinson reports on his website that work on his next book Orphan Stars is progressing, albeit slowly.[citation needed]

He has been named a Guest of Honor at the 76th World Science Fiction Convention in 2018.[9]

Published works[edit]

Novels and collections of linked stories[edit]

1977Callahan's Crosstime SaloonCallahan's/Jake StonebenderCollection of linked stories
1979StardanceJeanne RobinsonStardance Trilogy
1981Time Travelers Strictly CashCallahan's/Jake StonebenderCollection of linked stories; also contains several non-Callahan's stories
1982MindkillerDeathkiller Trilogy
1985Night of Power
1986Callahan's SecretCallahan's/Jake StonebenderCollection of linked stories
1987Time PressureDeathkiller Trilogy
1989Callahan's LadyLady Sally's
1991StarseedJeanne RobinsonStardance Trilogy
1992Lady Slings the BoozeLady Sally'sAn excerpt from Lady Slings the Booze was published in a special edition novella called Kill the Editor in 1991.
1993The Callahan TouchCallahan's/Jake Stonebender
1995StarmindJeanne RobinsonStardance Trilogy
1996Callahan's LegacyCallahan's/Jake Stonebender
1997LifehouseDeathkiller Trilogy
2000Callahan's KeyCallahan's/Jake Stonebender
2001The Free Lunch
2003Callahan's ConCallahan's/Jake Stonebender
2004Very Bad DeathsRussell Walker
2006Variable StarRobert A. HeinleinBased on an outline Heinlein prepared in 1955.
2008Very Hard ChoicesRussell Walker

Omnibus volumes[edit]

  • Callahan and Company (1988) - (omnibus edition of Callahan's Crosstime Saloon, Time Travelers Strictly Cash, and Callahan's Secret)
  • Off the Wall at Callahan's (1994) - (a collection of quotes from books in the Callahan's/Lady Sally series)
  • The Callahan Chronicals (1997) - (retitled republication of Callahan and Company)
  • The Star Dancers (1997) (with Jeanne Robinson) (omnibus edition of Stardance and Starseed)

Short story collections[edit]

  • Antinomy (1980)
  • Melancholy Elephants (1984 - Canada; 1985 - United States)
  • True Minds (1990)
  • User Friendly (1998)
  • By Any Other Name (2001)
  • God Is an Iron and Other Stories (2002)
  • My Favorite Shorts (2016; e-book only)

As editor[edit]

  • The Best of All Possible Worlds (1980) - collection of works by other authors edited and introduced by Robinson


  • Belabouring the Obvious (2000)

Collected essays[edit]

  • The Crazy Years: Reflections of a Science Fiction Original (2004), a collection of his articles for The Globe and Mail

Awards and honors[edit]


  • Robinson, Spider (1976). Telempath. New York: Berkley. ISBN 0-399-11796-2. 

External links[edit]

  1. ^ abcRobinson, Spider. "Spider Robinson's Bio". Retrieved October 13, 2016. 
  2. ^Robinson, Spider. The Crazy Years, "School Will Be Ending, Next Month" p. 107.
  3. ^Robinson, Spider. The Crazy Years, "Buzzed High Zonked Stoned Wasted" p. 44.
  4. ^Robinson, Spider. The Crazy Years, "Loathe Yourself, Fine—But Leave Me Out of It" p. 133.
  5. ^ abRobinson, Spider (1977). Callahan's Place. Tor. p. 9. ISBN 0-8125-7227-0. 
  6. ^Robinson, Spider. The Crazy Years, "You Just Can't Kill for Jesus/Allah/Jahweh/Rama/Elvis…" p.123, "Starsong on My Desktop" p. 219.
  7. ^Robinson, Spider. The Crazy Years, "Lay Off the Lady" p. 105.
  8. ^ ab"Spider Robinson talks about...callahan's, usenet & becoming spider". January Magazine. 
  9. ^ abBrown, Alan (September 28, 2017). "Joy and Pun-ishment: Callahan's Crosstime Saloon by Spider Robinson". Retrieved September 29, 2017. 
  10. ^For example, his 1980 essay "Rah, Rah, R.A.H.!" or the 1998 "Mentors".
  11. ^Robinson's essay, "Rah, Rah, R.A.H.!"
  12. ^Robinson, Spider. "Panels and conventions from years-gone-by". Retrieved October 13, 2016. 
  13. ^"Spider Robinson". Retrieved October 13, 2016. 
  14. ^Robinson, Spider. The Crazy Years, "I Want a Really Interactive Newspaper" p. 78.
  15. ^Robinson, Spider. The Crazy Years, "Citizen Keen" p. 53–55.
  16. ^"Spider Robinson's official website". Retrieved 2009-09-02. 
  17. ^"Graceful Woman Warrior". Retrieved 2014-12-27. 
  18. ^JoPhan (August 20, 2016). "San José to Host 2018 Worldcon". Retrieved October 13, 2016.